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  • Freeze Drying Covid-19 Diagnostics: Formulation & Process Development and Lyophilizer Selection

    Lyophilization may appear like a gentle drying process, but it comes with significant risks when used with biomolecular reagents in diagnostic tests that are not the same, like the freeze-drying of general pharmaceuticals.

    The reagents that are mostly used in PCR and ELISA-based diagnostic kits for conditions like Covid-19, are known to have labile components. These may include enzymes that are necessary to preserve longevity in the supply chain. They may also be vital in preserving the longevity of the antibodies used for testing the patients’ response to the virus. These reagents may not be easy to stabilize when considering commercial use.

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  • Appetite Control Central with Hypothalamic Peptides

    The hypothalamus part of the brain is responsible for the biological function of regulating a variety of body functions and responses. It has several important nuclei responsible for the regulation of energy homeostasis and feeding.

    We find the production sites of Luteinizing hormone – LH, the ventromedial hypothalamus – VHM, and the Arcuate Nucleus – ARC. As far as feeding and energy regulation in the body is concerned, the ARC is an integrated center for feeding regulation, VHM of the center of satiety, while the LH is the feeding center. Below is a brief look at some of the central hypothalamus peptides which are chains of amino acids worth knowing about when it comes to appetite control and feeding.
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  • What You Need to Know About Peptides and Food Intake

    The mechanisms involved with the regulation of food intake in the body, mainly feature the combined work of the brain, the adipose tissues, and the gut, among the top organs. Systems such as sympathetic, and parasympathetic among others, are also necessary for proper communication between the brain and satiety center, the adipose tissue, and the gut.

    Think of these as neuronal circuits that also feature a variety of hormones and chains of amino acids, as well as other appetite inhibitors – a clear indication of the importance of physiology when it comes to the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in the human body.
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  • Cell-penetrating Peptides and their Therapeutic Potential

    Cell-penetrating peptides, also known as CPP, have the ability to cross plasma membranes. Ever since the discovery of this ability, it has been exploited for a variety of applications, including delivering bioactive molecules to stop the actions of diseases producing cellular mechanisms.

    Through the selective delivery of drugs into the target cells, it is possible to achieve improved drug distribution, as well as a significant reduction of dosing and toxicity. In this review, we will look at some of the challenges being encountered in this specific field of application, as well as some of the factors that may influence the efficacy of the delivery.
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  • Peptides as the Next Generation Solution for Anti-Infectives

    The presence of large-scale manufacturing and advanced synthesis technologies have currently made it possible for the production of even the most complex peptide anti-infectives.

    With the possibility of this class of molecules being seen as the next-gen of infectives, safe anti-microbial, as well as with a better understanding of pharmacology and biology, it is just a matter of time before we see the introduction into clinical trials for these promising drug candidates.

    This is a vital step in the history and life cycle of peptide anti-infectives and it is one of the strongest indications that the therapeutic and commercial potential of the anti-infectives, is about to be achieved.
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  • The Development and Use of Peptides as Therapeutics

    Peptides refer to biologically active molecules that contain at least two amino acids, interlinked by a peptide bond. Unlike large proteins, they are small in size and a typical chain will usually not go past 100 amino acids.

    Since peptides are highly selective and also known to have relatively safe characteristics, their pharmacological profiles have always appealed to the research world. They are readily available in the human body where they play diverse biological roles.

    For most applications, they mainly act as regulatory and signaling molecules in various physiological processes. Back in the day, the instability of peptides limited their use in the design and development of human drugs, but due to technological breakthroughs, the instability challenges have all been overcome, greatly increasing the broad application of peptides.
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  • The Use of Therapeutic Peptides in Cancer Treatments

    Cancer and cardiovascular diseases are among the major causes of death in most developed countries. Most of the conventional approaches to treating cancer are quickly losing their therapeutic relevance due to the lack of tumor selectivity, drug resistance, and solubility. As such, there is a great need for the development of new therapeutic agents and treatment plans. Over the years, therapeutic peptides have provided a glimmer of hope, and they are currently being considered as a novel approach to treating a variety of diseases, including various forms of cancer.

    This is because they come with a variety of advantages over normal proteins and antibodies. Some of these advantages include easy synthesis, high target selectivity, and specificity, and very low toxicity. They, however, have some drawbacks, with their stability and short half-life being among major concerns. In this piece, we will be looking at some of the therapeutic peptides receiving the most attention currently and some of the strategies being used to overcome some of the peptide limitations.
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  • Promising Cancer Therapies With Peptide-Based Treatments

    What are Peptides and How are They Used?

    Peptides are molecules consisting of various chains of amino acids joined by peptides bonds through the process of a dehydration-condensation reaction. There are various places, or various origins of peptides, including but not limited to direct synthesis by the body, artificial synthesis, or through processes such as proteolysis. They play a huge role in the treatment of a variety of diseases, and they are currently at the center stage in the development of various types of vaccines and for the use of targeted therapy.
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  • Interesting Findings About Peptide Immunotherapeutics

    The development of peptide vaccines has been in the works for a very long time, but with minimal success. However, current advancements in medical technology, as well as an increased understanding of the immune system – more specifically the operations of the antigenic epitopes in stimulating an immune response, have opened a whole new field and made the development of peptide vaccines possible.

    Peptide-based vaccines – technically known as epitope ensemble vaccines, are viewed as a viable alternative approach to the discovery and development of not just targeted therapy but also prophylactic vaccines.
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  • Peptides as Therapeutic Agents for Inflammatory-Related Diseases

    An inflammation is the body's normal response to lesions and infections. The immune system cells move to the site of the injury or infection, and cause an inflammation. To treat this disorder, unspecific small molecule drugs are used, which may cause some side effects.
    The inflammation produces mediators such as cytokines, interleukins, and growth factors. It is necessary to regulate the inflammation to stabilize or heal the damaged cells or tissues.

    A lot of research is being made, and peptides have been used as an alternative anti-inflammatory therapy. Actually, peptides are considered effective compounds, and show an innovative strategy by stopping, diminishing, and/or changing the expression and activity of mediators.
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